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Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study
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The U.S. Department of Energy is constructing a waste treatment plant at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State to vitrify the large amount of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks. Supplemental treatment technologies were studied to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste, and a decision was made to proceed with a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility to further evaluate bulk vitrification (BV).
Experimental research, engineering-scale (ES) tests, and the science of glass melting provide ample evidence that a small fraction of Tc and Re were transferred out of the low-activity waste (LAW) glass feed and molten LAW glass and deposited on the surface and within the internal pore surfaces of the castable refractory block (CRB), both by low-temperature molten salt penetration and by high temperature evaporation-condensation. In this task, laboratory experiments were undertaken to evaluate the capability of these two mechanisms to transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate). All tests conducted in this task and described in this report used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc.
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